"Allah was pleased with the believers when they swore fealty to you [O Muhammed!] under the tree [at Hudaybiyah]: He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down tranquility upon them, and He rewarded them with a speedy victory" (Qur'an, 48:18).
As `Allamah LutfAllah al-Safi has stated with regard to this verse, Allah Almighty specifically meant those who believed from among the attendants of the fealty ceremony under that tree, and [His Pleasure] was not extended to the hypocrites who also attended it such as `Abdullah ibn Ubayy and Aws ibn Khawli, etc. There is no clue in the verse that it was in reference to ALL those who swore fealty, and it does not indicate the good outcome of all believers who swore it. The verse does not convey any meaning beyond the Pleasure of Allah with them for having sworn this fealty [to His Messenger]. That is to say, He accepted such an oath, and He rewards for it. The Pleasure of Allah with those who swore this fealty does not obligate His Pleasure with them for eternity. The evidence for this is what He, the Almighty, said about them:
"Truly those who pledge their fealty to you [O Muhammed!] do no less than pledge their fealty to Allah: the hand of Allah is above their hands" (Qur'an, 48:10).
Had some of those who swore fealty not renege in his oath, and had the Pleasure of Allah been with them forever, there would have been no use for this verse of the Almighty:
"... Then anyone who violates his oath does so to the harm of his own soul" (Qur'an, 48:10).
Among the sahabah were those predicted by the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) to revert to pre-Islamic beliefs after the Prophet's demise and would perish on the Day of Judgment. We know this from the following tradition which al-Bukhari cites in his Sahih with the isnad to Sahl ibn Sa`d who said, "I heard the Prophet (a.s.) say,
"I shall precede you at the Pool [of Kawthar]. Whoever reaches it will drink of it, and whoever drinks of it shall never taste of thirst. People whom I know and who know
me shall meet me there, but a barrier shall be placed between us."
Sahl goes on to say that the statement of the Prophet (a.s.) had additional details. The Prophet (a.s.) would then say,
"But they are my companions!" It will be said to him, "You do not know what alterations [to the creed] they did after you." The Prophet (a.s.) shall say, "Crushed, may anyone who makes changes (to the creed) after me be crushed."
`Abdullah [ibn `Abbas] is quoted as having cited the Prophet (a.s.) saying the following to some sahabah:
"I shall precede you at the Pool. Some of you, men, shall be raised to me. If I try to hand them [water], they shall not be able to reach me. I shall say, 'Lord! But these are my companions!' He shall say, 'You do not know what they introduced [into the creed] after you."
As a testimony to both past traditions which point out to alterations and innovations introduced into the creed, the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) compares some of his sahabah to Jewish and Christian nations that altered the Word of Allah from its rightful place. Abu Sa`id al-Khudri says that the Prophet (a.s.) has said,
"You shall follow the ways of those before you the distance of a span, the distance of a yard, [and so on]. Even if they enter the hole of a lizard, you will still follow them there." We [the sahabah] said, "The Jews and the Christians?!" He (a.s.) said, "Who else?!"
And among the sahabah are those about whom the Almighty said the following in His Glorious Book:
"But when they [some sahabah] see some bargain or
 Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 9, p. 144, in the book of dissensions in a chapter titled "Beware of dissension that will specifically afflict those from among you who oppressed".  Ibid.  Ibid., Vol. 9, p. 315, in the book of shielding with the Book and the Sunnah in a chapter about following past nations.
amusement, they disperse headlong to it and leave you standing" (Qur'an, 62:11).
This verse was revealed about the sahabah who left the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) delivering his Friday sermon when they heard about a trade caravan that had come from Syria, leaving with him only twelve men from among all the other thousands of sahabah. Jabir ibn `Abdullah [al-Ansari] is quoted as having said, "A trade caravan came on a Friday while we were with the Prophet (a.s.). People left save twelve men; thereupon, Allah revealed this verse: 'But when they see some bargain or amusement, they disperse headlong to it and leave you standing' (Qur'an, 62:11)." In another narrative, he said, "While we were praying with the Prophet (a.s.), a caravan came carrying foodstuffs. They turned to it, leaving with the Prophet (a.s.) only twelve men; therefore, this verse was revealed: 'But when they see some bargain or amusement, they disperse headlong to it and leave you standing' (Qur'an, 62:11)." The same number of sahabah remained with the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) after all the rest had fled away in the Battle of Uhud, prompting the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) to dissociate himself from their action. Al-Bara' ibn `Azib has said, "My uncle, Anas ibn al-Nadr, was absent during the battle of Badr, so he said, 'O Messenger of Allah! I was absent the first day when you fought the polytheists. If Allah permits me to be present during the fight against the polytheists, Allah will see what I shall do.' When the battle of Uhud approached and the Muslims dispersed, the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) said, 'Lord! I seek Your excuse for what these have done,' meaning his sahabah."
Add to the above what happened during the battle of Hunayn. The flight of the sahabah left a more bitter taste. They numbered in the thousands. The Holy Qur'an reprimanded them for their abominable action thus:
"Assuredly Allah did help you on many battlefields and on the Day of Hunayn: Behold! Your great numbers elated
 Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 47 in the Book of Jihad in a chapter about the verse saying, "Among the believers are men who proved truthful..., etc."
you, but they did not avail you at all: The land, for all its vastness, constrained you and you turned back in retreat. But Allah poured His calm upon the Prophet and upon the believers and sent down forces which you did not see: He punished the unbelievers: Thus does He reward those without faith" (Qur'an, 9:25-26).
And among the sahabah were those about whom the Almighty said,
"It is not fitting for a Prophet to take prisoners of war until he has thoroughly subdued the land. You look on the temporal goods of this world, but Allah looks to the Hereafter, and Allah is Exalted in might, Wise. Had it not been for a previous ordinance from Allah, a severe penalty would have reached you for the (ransom) that you took" (Qur'an, 8:67-68).
This verse was revealed in reference to a band of the sahabah who were of the view that they should take on the said caravan and what Abu Sufyan's caravan was carrying, preferring it over fighting when the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) consulted them before the Battle of Badr in order to gauge their readiness and will to fight.
And among the sahabah were those who were rebuked by the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) for their tribal attitude and their jahiliyyah-type attitudes. It also becomes clear from what is narrated by Jabir ibn `Abdullah [al-Ansari] who said once, "We were invaders in a campaign. Sufyan was once in an army when a man from the Muhajirun assaulted a man from the Ansar. The Ansari man said, 'Who supports an Ansari man?' and the man from among the Muhajirun said, 'Who supports a Muhajir man?' The Messenger of Allah (a.s.) heard about it, so he said, 'What a Jahili cAlla!'" This Jahili call almost caused a war between both tribes of al-Aws and al-Khazraj which formed the bulk of the Ansar.
Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 6, p. 397, in the book of Tafsir in a chapter about this verse: "Whether you ask for their forgiveness or not, (their sin is unforgivable:) If you ask seventy times for their forgiveness, Allah will not forgive them because they have rejected Allah and His Prophet, and Allah does not guide those who are perversely rebellious" (Qur'an, 9:80).
`A'ishah is quoted as having said, "... so Sa`d ibn Mu`ath stood up and said, 'O Messenger of Allah! I shall spare you having to deal with him! If he is one of the Aws, we shall strike his neck with the sword. And if he is from among our Khazraj brothers, you shall order us, and we will carry out your order.' Sa`d ibn `Abadah, master of al-Khazraj, who was before then a good man but his [tribal] zeal may have overcome him, said, 'You have lied, by Allah! We shall kill him, for you are a hypocrite trying to argue on behalf of the hypocrites.' Arguing intensified between the Aws and the Khazraj, and the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) was at the time on the pulpit. He descended and cooled their anger until they kept silent while he, too, became cool."
And among the sahabah were those who hated `Ali (a.s.) hatred towards whom is a sign of hypocrisy, as we have already stated. Abu Buraydah has said, "The Prophet (a.s.) sent `Ali to Khalid [ibn al-Walid] to receive the khums tax, and I used to hate `Ali who had just had his ghusul, so I said to Khalid, 'Don't you look at this?!' When we went to the Prophet (a.s.), I mentioned the same to him. He said to me, 'O Buraydah! Do you hate `Ali?' I said, 'Yes'. He (a.s.) said, 'Do not hate him, for his share of the khums is a lot more than that.'"
And among the sahabah were those who doubted the wisdom of the decisions of the Prophet (a.s.) as it became obvious when they doubted his wisdom in selecting usamah ibn Zayd [as commander of an army]. Some people doubted his leadership. The Prophet (a.s.), therefore, said, "Do not doubt his authority, for you all used in the past to doubt the authority of his father."
And among the sahabah were those whom the Messenger of Allah
 Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 508 in the book of testimonies.  Ibid., Vol. 5, p. 447 in the book of military campaigns in a chapter about dispatching `Ali (a.s.) and Khalid, may Allah be pleased with both of them, to Yemen.  Ibid., Vol. 5, p. 57 in the book of the virtues of the sahabah, in a chapter about Zayd's virtues.
(a.s.) kicked out of his meeting place when they objected to his order to write his last will and who, instead, described him as hallucinating. Sa`id ibn Jubayr quotes [`Abdullah] ibn `Abbas saying, "Thursday! And what a Thursday it was!" Sa`id went on to say that Ibn `Abbas kept weeping until his tears wetted the pebbles. "So I said," went on Sa`id ibn Jubayr, "O Ibn `Abbas! What is it with Thursday?!" Ibn `Abbas said to him, "The pain [of sickness] of the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) intensified, so he said, 'Bring me a shoulder-bone so I may write for you something after which you shall never stray.' They disputed among themselves, and there must be no dispute in the presence of a Prophet. They said, `What is wrong with him?! Has he hallucinated?! Ask him for an explanation,' so he (a.s.) said, 'Leave me alone, for I am better than what you attribute to me.'"
And among the sahabah were those who quarreled over authority following the demise of the Messenger of Allah (a.s.), so much so that some of them went as far as asking for the appointment of two rulers, one from the Muhajirun and one from the Ansar. This proved that they did not relinquish their tribal ways of thinking which had been common during the time of jahiliyyah despite their acceptance of Islam as we explained while discussing the events of the Saqifah.
Among the sahabah were Abu Hurayrah and Mu`awiyah for whom I dedicated special chapters in other places of this research.
Perhaps the exaggeration of the Sunnis in raising the status of a sahabi stems from the honor of his having accompanied the Prophet (a.s.), but this is not more honoring than marrying his daughter, for Allah Almighty has said the following about the women of the Prophet (a.s.):
"O consorts of the Prophet! If any of you were guilty of evident unseemly conduct, the punishment would be doubled to her, and that is easy for Allah. But any of you who is devout in the service of Allah and His Prophet, and
 Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 260 in the book of khums in a chapter about getting the Jews out of the Arabian Peninsula.
does righteous deeds, to her We shall grant reward twice [as much] and We have prepared a generous sustenance for her" (Qur'an, 33:30-31).
Similarly, He has said the following about the disobedience of the Prophet (a.s.) of `A'ishah and Hafsah:
"If both of you turn in repentance to Him, your hearts are indeed so inclined; but if you back each other up against him, truly Allah is his Protector, and [so is] Gabriel and the righteous among those who believe-and the angels too. It may be, if he divorced you (all), that Allah will give him consorts better than you in exchange-who submit (their wills), who believe, who are devout, who turn to Allah in repentance, who worship (in humility), who travel (for faith) and fast, previously married or virgins. O you who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a fire whose fuel is men and stones, over which stern (and) strong angels are appointed, (angels) who do not flinch (from executing) the commands they receive from Allah, but do (precisely) what they are commanded. (They will say,) O you unbelievers! Make no excuses this Day! You are only being requited for all that you did! O you who believe! Turn to Allah with sincere repentance: In the hope that your Lord will remove your ills and admit you into gardens beneath which rivers flow-the Day that Allah will not permit the Prophet and the believers with him to be humiliated. Their light will shine before them and on their right hands, while they say, "Lord! Perfect our light for us, and grant us forgiveness, for You have power over all things. O Prophet! Strive hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is Hell-a (truly) evil refuge. Allah sets forth, as an example to the unbelievers, the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot: They were (respectively) under two of Our righteous servants, but they were false to their (husbands), and they benefited nothing before Allah on their account but were told, "Enter
the Fire along with (others) who enter!" (Qur'an, 66:4-10).
What we are trying to say is that keeping a lot of company with the Prophet (a.s.) does not necessarily mean a higher degree of iman for such companions, in addition to the past narratives about the companions of the Prophet (a.s.). What is narrated about the wives of the Prophet (a.s.) is similar if not more perplexing and harsher. For example, Ibn `Abbas is quoted as having said, "I kept for a whole year trying to ask `Umar about the couple of women who disobeyed the Prophet (a.s.), but I kept fearing him. One day, he went to a house, and when he got out of it, I asked him. He said, 'They were `A'ishah and Hafsah.' Then he added saying, 'During the time of jahiliyyah, we held women as worthless, but when Islam came and Allah made references to them, we realized that we have some obligations towards them without our having to force them to do anything. My wife and I had an argument, so I became rough with her and said, 'You are such and such.' She said to me, 'Do you say this to me while your own daughter harms [the feelings of] the Messenger of Allah (a.s.)?!' I, therefore, went to Hafsah and said, 'I warn you against disobeying Allah and His Messenger!'"
`A'ishah has also said, "The Messenger of Allah (a.s.) had a honey drink served to him once by Zainab daughter of Jahsh, and he stayed with her. I and Hafsah conspired that if he (a.s.) visited either of us, he would be told that he had eaten Maghafir [plant] and that he smelled of Maghafir. When he was told, he said, 'No, but I had a honey drink at the home of Zainab daughter of Jahsh, and I shall not do so again.' He (a.s.) asked her to swear not to tell anyone about it."
`A'ishah also said, "The wives of the Prophet (a.s.) used to form two parties. One of them included `A'ishah (herself), Hafsah, Safiyyah and Sawdah, and the other included Umm Salamah and the rest of
 Al-Bukhari, Sahih, vol. 7 pp. 72-404 in the book about clothes  Ibid., Vol. 6, p. 404 in the book of Tafsir in a chapter about the verse saying, "O Prophet! Why do you prohibit [yourself from enjoying what] Allah has made lawful to you?"
the Prophet's wives."
`A'ishah has also said, "I used to feel jealous of the women who offered themselves to the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) and say, 'Does a woman really offer herself?!' When the following verses were revealed: 'There is no blame on you if you make an offer of marriage or hold it in your hearts. Allah knows that you cherish them in your hearts, but do not make a secret contract with them except on honorable terms, nor should you sign the marriage contract until the prescribed term is fulfilled. And be informed that Allah knows what is in your hearts, and take heed of Him, and be informed that Allah is oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing' (Qur'an, 2:235), I said (to him), 'I can see how your Lord is swift in fulfilling your heart's desires."
`A'ishah has also said, "Halah, daughter of Khuwaylid, sister of Khadijah, sought permission once to visit the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) who recognized how Khadijah used to seek permission, so he was quite upset about it and said, 'Lord! I hope it is Halah!' I, thereupon, felt jealous and said, 'Why do you still remember one of Quraysh's old women with red eyes who has for some time been dead since Allah has replaced her for you with someone better than her [meaning herself]?" In yet another narrative, `A'ishah made a reference to Khadijah who distinguished herself from all other wives of the Prophet (a.s.). She believed in the message of the Prophet (a.s.) while people then called him a liar. She offered all her wealth to him when people deprived him of theirs. And he was blessed with children by her. All this explains why `A'ishah was so jealous of her especially since the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) used to always mention her virtues even after her death, and this contradicts the claim of `A'ishah that Allah had granted the Prophet (a.s.) a
 Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 454 in the book about gifting in a chapter about one giving his friend a gift.  Ibid., Vol. 6, p. 295 in the book explaining the verse "... make an offer of marriage or hold it in your hearts..." (Qur'an, 2:235).  Ibid., Vol. 5, p. 105 in the book of the virtues of al-Ansar in a chapter about the Prophet (a.s.) marrying Khadijah and her distinctions.
woman better than her [than Khadijah]. `A'ishah is also quoted as having said, "I never felt jealous of the Prophet's wives as much as I felt jealous of Khadijah. Although I never saw her, the Prophet (a.s.) used to mention her quite often. He may slaughter a she-camel then cut the meat into pieces then send them to Khadijah's friends. I may say to him that it was as though there was no woman in the world except Khadijah, and he would say that she was such and such, and that Allah granted him children by her."
Those who believe in the "justice" of all the sahabah base their belief on their claim that the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) said, "My companions are like the stars: Whomsoever you emulate, you shall be guided." In another such narrative, the wording states: "... If you follow the statements of any of them..., etc." Although the Sunnis do not openly advocate that all the sahabah were infallible, yet anyone who claims the authenticity of this narrative must necessarily believe in the infallibility of all of them. This is so because it is not possible that the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) should order the absolute emulation, without any term or condition, as this supposed narrative claims, of someone who may disobey him.
Hence, the past traditions which call for a serious reconsideration and contemplation of the "justice" of many sahabis are mostly in reference to those who kept company with the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) for a long period of time; so, what would you say about the "justice" of those who were labeled as "sahabah" for merely seeing the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) even for one moment? And why should there be such an exaggeration anyway?! Can one acquire "justice" and "piety" by merely seeing the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) for one moment, or can it be acquired by obeying the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) and emulating him with good intentions and sincerity?
Such a contradiction, which is rejected by sound reason and by the human nature, may become gloriously obvious in the way how some Sunni "scholars", such as Ibn Taymiyyah, preferred
 Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 5, p. 104 in the book of the virtues of al-Ansar in a chapter about the Prophet (a.s.) marrying Khadijah and her distinctions.
Mu`awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan over the ascetic caliph `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz for no reason except that Mu`awiyah was a "sahabi" and `Umar was a "tabi`i" despite the fact that `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz was very famous for his piety and justice, unlike Mu`awiyah who was famous for creating the greatest dissension among the Muslims in Siffin and for disobeying the Commander of the Faithful `Ali (a.s.) as we have already stated. Add to this fame which `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz acquired as the fifth righteous caliph according to the Sunnis themselves, something which by itself proves that Mu`awiyah was not a righteous caliph at all. Thus, nobody can be called "righteous" only because he was a companion of the Messenger of Allah (a.s.).
It is useful to ask in this regard: Who occupies a higher degree: those who believed in the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) after having witnessed scores of divine miracles with their own eyes or those who believed in Islam without seeing any of them?! The fact is that I could never see an explanation for such an exaggeration in the degree of "piety" of the sahabah and the publicity for the concept that they were all just except to close the door in the face of anyone who criticizes some sahabis who worked hard to push caliphate away from its rightful owners. Thus, many Sunnis reject all the irrefutable proofs that the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.) were more fit to be the Imams of the Muslims for no reason except they believe in the "justice" of all the sahabah. They, therefore, consider anything which these "sahabis" had done as "correct."
As regarding those who worked hard to disseminate this wrong concept, they did so because they regarded the Imams from among the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.) as posing a danger to their thrones due to their knowledge that those Imams were right in their claim. There was a need, therefore, to apply a sort of smoke-screen and confusion to such traditions and Qur'anic verses which highlighted the status of these Imams (a.s.) while raising the status of ALL the sahabah so that the Imams from among the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.) would not have the distinction which qualified them to be the choice of Allah Almighty as well as that of the majority of the Islamic nation following the
demise of the Chosen One (a.s.).
Hence, the wordings and meanings of the above-cited alleged tradition which says that ALL the sahabah are "stars" are modeled after a tradition of the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) which says,
"The stars offer security for the people of the earth against drowning, while my Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.) offer them security against dissension [with regard to religious issues]; therefore, if an Arab tribe opposes them, they will differ and become the party of Iblis."
One of the most significant negative effects which came as the outcome of believing in the "justice" of ALL the sahabah is the existence of such a huge quantity of erroneous narratives in the books of hadith. These include what is cited through Jewish and Christian sources and other myths which are all used to cast doubts about the Islamic creed. Such narratives have been accepted and held as being authentic merely because they were narrated by the sahabah despite all the latter's deeds which can be criticized as we explained about many past narratives.
 Refer to Mustadrak al-Sahihayn.